white led light exposure inhibits the development and xanthophore pigmentation of zebrafish embryo
The circadian rhythm of all organisms is continuously disturbed by artificial light sources, and artificial lighting has become a major hidden danger to public health. The circadian rhythm of melatonin maintains a high level of melatonin at night and a low level during the day. N- Transfer enzyme ( Amine N- Enzyme, AANAT) Is one of the four enzymes needed for melatonin synthesis, and mtnr1ba is the melatonin receptor- Encoding mRNA that is widely expressed in the embryonic brain. Pax7 plays an important role in the development of neural processes, especially in the process of yellow Tuan pigmentation. Due to its circadian nature, the zebrafish fish provides a special opportunity to study the circadian rhythm of melatonin regulation. In this study, we found that white LED exposure resulted in a decrease in yellow pigmentation, a decrease in body length and exercise activity, and oxidation- The antioxidant imbalance and expression of Zebrafish 2, mtnr1ba and pax7 in zebrafish fish embryos decreased. Compared with the control group, the histological analysis of the group showed spatial tissue confusion between photosensitive cells and a decrease in total retinal thickness and the thickness of the photosensitive cell layer. Artificial lighting pollution has the potential to become an important risk factor for different diseases, including cancer, so more research should be carried out and necessary provisions should be made on this risk factor. Sunlight is a major factor in maintaining the biological clock and regulating the circadian rhythm of all organisms. On the other hand, artificial light sources constantly interfere with this natural process. Artificial light sources include a variety of electrical spectrum and technical tools. Artificial lighting has become an important part of urban life. On the other hand, artificial light complicates the management of biological metabolic processes simultaneously. Light Cycle is the main signal to regulate endogenous rhythm. Video cross nuclear (SCN) Activation is effective in locomotive activity, water and nutrient intake, sexual behavior, body temperature, tsh release, prolactin and melatonin release. The circadian rhythm of the melatonin cycle is an important feature of the physiology of the spine, maintaining a high level of melatonin at night and a low level during the day. At night, melatonin is produced by pineal glands and retinal photosensitive cells. In the pineal gland, circulating melatonin plays a hormonal role in seasonal and circadian physiology, and melatonin produced by retina photosensitive cells is recommended to regulate light and dark adaptation. Trytopphan is the predecessor of melatonin and 5-amine N. Transfer enzyme ( Amine N- Enzyme, AANAT) It is one of the four enzymes needed to synthesize melatonin from amino acids. The content of melatonin in the blood is mainly controlled by the activity of AANAT. On the other hand, it is reported that the external light signal controls the daily rhythm of the AANAT activity. Melatonin is produced in the pineal gland of the adult zebrafish fish, which is regulated by the circadian rhythm clock of the pineal gland, and by the effect of light on the pineal gland light sensor. The mammalian melatonin receptor MT1 is present in the brain, while MT2, which is the same source as zebrafish, is located in the retina. In the zebrafish fish, melatonin receptors are distributed in as, and which are widely expressed in the embryonic brain. However, in adult zebrafish fish, it is mainly expressed in the gray area around the visual disc, as well as in the hills and lower part of the chamber week. The three pigments of black melanin, yellow pigment and sparkling rainbow color group form the unique golden and blue horizontal stripes of zebrafish. These pigment cells are derived from neurons of embryonic/early larvae. In fish and reptiles, the role of melatonin varies depending on species, developmental stage, and location of pigment cells. The paired box Homologous domain transcription factor Pax7 plays an important role in the development of neural processes, especially in the process of yellow Tuan pigmentation. LEDs (LED) They are used as alternative and effective light sources with high cost-effectiveness and wide beam width. In order to save energy, some countries have forced the use of fluorescent bulbs or LEDs instead of incandescent lamps. On the other hand, the wavelength of light emitted by LEDs is related to the harmful effects on human health. Therefore, the impact of artificial lighting on health has been recognized in recent years. Artificial light is associated with diabetes, different types of cancer, and depression. Recent studies have shown that artificial light affects the division, growth and development of cells, causes cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, nervous system diseases caused by changes in the endocrine system and different types of cancer. Due to its external fertilization, small size, high re-productivity, rapid development, transparency, scientific database suitable for screening and rapid growth, Zebrafish has become a popular model organism. Unlike night-active rodents, the zebrafish fish is often seen as day-and-night creatures active during the day and are active in both adult and young stages. The circadian features of the Zebrafish make it a special organism for the Study of melatonin regulation of circadian rhythm. However, the role of the spectrum in zebrafish has not yet been widely studied. Although people, especially children, are exposed to led lights during the day due to electronic devices, as far as we know, there is no information about the daytime effects of different led lights on melatonin Expression gene (2) Sports activities, oxidation- Antioxidant status in Zebrafish fish embryos. In addition, we assume that LED light exposure may affect melatonin receptors Therefore, we measured the expression genes and examined the retina on histological basis. In our experiment, we observed that white LED light exposure reduced color spots. In order to investigate the underlying mechanism, we also studied the expression of genes responsible for yellow pigmentation.